What is menorrhagia?
Menorrhagia is a common disorder in women. Menstrual bleeding is a medical term that lasts for more than 7 days. One in 20 women will have menorrhagia. Some bleeding is very heavy, which means that you change your tampon or pad less than 2 hours later. It also means that it will remove a clot of a quarter or more.
Menorrhagia can lead to anemia if left untreated. In addition, excessive bleeding can affect sleep, cause pain in the lower abdomen, and overwhelm pleasant activities. If you experience weakness and interruption in daily life due to heavy bleeding, you should consult with a gynaecologist doctor about treatment options.
· Heavy periods
Causes of menorrhagia
In some cases, the cause of heavy structure bleeding is unknown, but many conditions can cause menorrhagia. Common causes:
· Hormonal imbalance: In a normal cycle of the structure, the balance between the hormones estrogen and progesterone regulates the formation of the lining of the uterus (endometrium), which is shed during menstruation. If a hormonal imbalance occurs, the endometrium will grow too large and will eventually be eliminated by heavy bleeding.
Many conditions can cause hormonal imbalances, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), esophagitis, insulin resistance, and thyroid problems.
· Ovarian dysfunction: If your ovaries do not release an egg during ovulation (ovulation), your body will not make a hormone called progesterone, which is present in the normal menstrual cycle. This can lead to hormonal imbalances and lead to menorrhagia.
· Cervical fibroids: These non-cancer (benign) tumors of the uterus appear during the postpartum years. Cervical fibroids can cause chronic or heavier than normal structural bleeding.
· Polyps: Small, benign growths on the lining of the uterus (uterine polyps) can cause heavy or chronic structural bleeding.
· Adenomyosis: This condition occurs when the glands of the endometrium are embedded in the uterine muscles, which often causes heavy bleeding and painful periods.
· Intrauterine device (IUD): Menorrhagia is a well-known side effect of the use of a non-hormonal intrauterine device for birth control. Your doctor will help you plan alternative management options.
· Pregnancy problems: The single, heavy, late period may be due to miscarriage. Another cause of heavy bleeding during pregnancy is an abnormal location of the placenta, that is, the lower placenta or placenta previa.
· Cancer: Cervical cancer can cause excessive bleeding, especially if it stopped after menopause or if you had an abnormal pap test in the past.
· Hereditary bleeding disorders: Some bleeding disorders (von Willebrand disease, a significant blood clotting defect, or a debilitating condition) can cause abnormal structural bleeding.
· Medications: Anti-inflammatory medications, hormonal medications such as estrogens and progestins, and blood thinners such as warfarin (commodore, zantoven) or enoxaparin (Lovenox) can contribute to heavy or chronic structural bleeding.
· Other medical conditions: Many other medical conditions, including liver or kidney disease, can be associated with menorrhagia.
Risk factors for menorrhagia
Risk factors vary with age and if you have other medical conditions that explain your menorrhagia. In a normal cycle, the release of an egg from the ovaries stimulates the body to produce progesterone, the female hormone responsible for maintaining a regular period. When the egg is not released, insufficient progesterone can cause massive bleeding.
Menorrhagia in adolescent girls is usually due to anesthesia. Teenage girls undergo aneurysmal cycles in the first year after their first period (menarche).
Menorrhagia in older women of reproductive age is generally due to cervical pathology, including fibroids, polyps, and adenomyosis. However, it can cause cervical cancer, bleeding disorders, drug side effects, and other problems such as liver or kidney disease.
Symptoms of menorrhagia
The symptoms of menorrhagia can include:
· Bleeding more than a week
· Blood clots larger than a piece
· Limitation of daily activities due to the high flow of structures
· Symptoms of anemia such as fatigue, tiredness, or shortness of breath
· Soak for several hours in a row with one or more sanitary pads or tampons every hour
· You need to use double sanitary protection to control the flow of your structure
· Need to wake up to change sanitary protection during the night
Diagnosis of menorrhagia
It is not easy to tell if a woman has heavy bleeding because each person may think differently about “heavy bleeding.” Structural bleeding usually lasts 4 to 5 days and the amount of blood lost is minimal (2 to 3 tablespoons). However, women with menorrhagia usually bleed for more than 7 days and lose twice as much blood. If you have bleeding that lasts more than 7 days or is too heavy, you may need to change your pad or tampon every hour and you should talk to your doctor.
To find out if you have menorrhagia, your doctor will ask about your medical history and work cycles.
He or she can ask the following questions:
· How old were you when your first period came?
· How long is your build cycle?
· How many days does your period usually last?
· How many days does your period feel heavy?
· How do your periods affect your quality of life?
Your doctor may also ask you if any of your family members have had heavy structural bleeding. You may have completed this questionnaire to find out if you need to be tested for a bleeding defect.
Write down the dates of your periods and think about how heavy your flow is (maybe counting how many sanitary pads or tampons you use). Do this before visiting the doctor so that he can give you as much information as possible. Above is a picture of a chart that some doctors use to keep track of your period. You can make your own chart based on what is shown. Your doctor will also do a pelvic exam and tell you about other tests that can help determine if you have menorrhagia.
Treatment for menorrhagia
Your age, your general health, and your personal preferences will be taken into account when your healthcare provider finds the best treatment for you.
Treatment for hormonal problems may include:
· Prostaglandin inhibitors: These are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which include aspirin or ibuprofen. These can help reduce cramps and the amount of bleeding you have.
· Birth control pills: These stop ovulation and cause a lighter period.
· Progesterone: It is a type of hormone therapy.
Treatment for problems with the lining of the uterus (endometrium) may include:
· Ablation: Doctors use this procedure to destroy the lining of the uterus (endometrium).
· Amputation: In this procedure, the lining of the uterus is removed.
· Cervical surgery: It is the surgical removal of the entire uterus.
· Iron supplements: If you have anemia due to excessive blood loss, you may need iron supplements.